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      唇亡齿寒

            春秋时候,晋献公想要扩充自己的实力和地盘,就找借口说邻近的虢(guó)国经常侵犯晋国的边境,要派兵灭了虢国。可是在晋国和虢国之间隔着一个虞国,讨伐虢国必须经过虞地。“怎样才能顺利通过虞国呢?”晋献公问手下的大臣。大夫荀息说:“虞国国君是个目光短浅、贪图小利的人,只要我们送他价值连城的美玉和宝马,他不会不答应借道的。”晋献公一听有点舍不得,荀息看出了晋献公的心思,就说:“虞虢两国是唇齿相依的近邻,虢国灭了,虞国也不能独存,您的美玉宝马不过是暂时存放在虞公那里罢了。”晋献公采纳了荀息的计策。


            虞国国君见到这两份珍贵的礼物,顿时心花怒放,听到荀息说要借道虞国之事时,当时就满口答应下来。虞国大夫宫之奇听说后,赶快阻止道:“不行,不行,虞国和虢国是唇齿相依的近邻,我们两个小国相互依存,有事可以自彼帮助,万一虢国灭了,我们虞国也就难保了。俗话说:‘唇亡齿寒’,没有嘴唇,牙齿也保不住啊!借道给晋国万万使不得。”虞公说:“人家晋国是大国,现在特意送来美玉宝马和咱们交朋友,难道咱们借条道路让他们走走都不行吗?”宫之奇连声叹气,知道虞国离灭亡的日子不远了,于是就带着一家老小离开了虞国。

      果然,晋国军队借道虞国,消灭了虢国,随后又把亲自迎接晋军的虞公抓住,灭了虞国。


      联系无处不在,让我们不得不承认古人所提到的“城门失火,殃及池鱼”,以及“唇齿之邦,唇亡则齿寒”。我们永远无法忽视那些与我们息息相关的人、事、物,它们与我们就如同是一根线上的蚂蚱,“一损俱损,一荣俱荣”。我们身处复杂的社会环境之中,要想谋求自身的安全与生存,首先必须找到与自己息息相关的势力,与之结合起来,共同对抗强者,这样才能实现自保,否则,必将成为“受冻的牙齿”和“被殃及的池鱼”。


       If the lips are gone, the teeth will be cold--

      one cannot exist without the other


      During the Spring and Autumn Period (chūn qiū 春秋时期,770-476 BC), Duke Xian of the State of Jin Wanted to expand his position of strength and sphere of influence. Therefore he would like to send his troops to destroy the State of Guo on the pretest that the State of Guo often encroached on the borders of the State of Jin. But there was a third state, the State of Yu, between the State of Jin and the State of Guo, and the Jin army had to cross the State of Yu before it could reach the State of Guo. "How can my army cross the State of Yu without a hitch?" Duke Xian of the State of Jin asked his ministers.Xun Xi , one of the ministers, said, "The monarch of the State of Yu is short - sighted and covets small advantages.

      If we give him priceless precious stones and fine horses, it is not unlikely that he will allow our army to pass through his country. " Seeing that Duke Xian of the State of Jin was a little bit grudging, Xun Xi continued to say, "The State of Yu and the State of Guo are neighbor stated as closely related as lips and teeth. The State of Yu cannot exist independently if the state of Guo is destroyed. Your precious stones and fime hores are just left in the care of the monarch of the State of Yu." So Duke Xian of the State of Jin accepted Xun Xi's plan. When the monarch of Yu saw the precious gifts, he was elated,and readily promised to let the Jin army pass through his state. Hearing the news, Gong Zhiqi, one of the ministers as the State of Yu, hastened to admonish the monarch, saying," That won't do.For the State of Yu and the State of Guo are neighbor states as closely related as lips and teeth. Our two small states are interdependent, and can help each other when problems crop up .If the State of Guo were destroyed, it would be difficult for our State of Yu to continue to exist.

      As the common saying goes, if the lips are gone ,the teeth will be cold, The teeth can hardly be kept if the lips are gone. So it won't do at all to allow the Jin army pass our state." The monarch of the State of Yu said," The State of Jin is a big state. Now they here specially to present gifts to us with the intention of being on friendly terms with us. Under such circumstances, how can we refuse to allow them to pass through our state?" Hearing this, Gong Zhiqi sighed repeatedly. Knowing that the State of Yu would soon be destroyed, Gong Zhiqi left the State of Yu together with his whole family.

      As expected, the troops of the State of Jin, allowed to pass through the State of Yu, destroyed the State of Guo and on their return trip captured the monarch of the State of Yu who went out personally to meet them, thus destroying the State of Yu as Well.

      This story appears in the chapter " The Fifth Year of Duke Xi " in Zuo zhuan,the famous commentary by Zuo Qiuming on The Spring and Autumn Annals. The set phrase " if the lips are gone, the teeth will be cold " is used to mean that two persons or things share a common lot and that is one fails, the other is in danger.




      입술이 없으면 이가 시리다

      춘추에 진헌공은 자신의 실력과 지반을 넓히기 위해 이웃 괵나라가 진나라의 변경을 자주 침범했고 괵나라를 파병해야 했다는 변명을 들었다.그러나 진나라와 괵나라 사이는 우나라를 사이두고 치러지는 괵나라는 반드시 우나라를 지나가야 한다.우국을 어떻게 무사히 통과할 수 있을까.진헌공이 부하에게 물었다.대부순씨:"우나라의 국군은 안목도 일천하고 사리 욕심이 많은 사람인데, 우리가 값진 미옥과 보마를 보내기만 하면 차입에 응하지 않을 리가 없다.진헌공은 듣자마자순씨가 진헌공의 마음을 알아채자 우괵두나라는 순치의 린접국으로서 괵나라가 망하면 우나라가 홀로 생존할수 없다. 당신의 미옥보마는 우공에게 잠시 머물렀을 뿐이오.진헌공은 순씨의 계책을 채납하였다.

      우나라 군주는 이 두 귀중한 선물을 만나자 순씨가 우나라의 길을 빌려주겠노라고 하는 말을 듣자마자 두말없이 응대하였다.우나라 대부 궁지기가 듣고나서 빨리 저지했다."안 돼, 안 돼. 우국과 괵국은 순치의 가까운 이웃이다. 우리 두 나라가 서로 의지하고 있다.옛말에'입술이 없으면 이가 시리다'라는 말이 있듯이 입술이 없으면 이빨도 보존할수 없다.이를 진나라에 빌려주면 안 된다"고 주장했다.우공은"진나라는 대국인데, 이제 특별히 미옥보마를 보내와 우리 친구로 사귀자고 하니, 우리가 길을 빌려주어도 되지 않겠느냐"고 말했다.궁지기 이함은 연달아 탄식하며, 우나라가 멸망할 날이 멀지 않다는 것을 알고, 집안의 노소를 데리고 우나라를 떠났다.예상한 대 진나라의 군대는 우나라를 도와 괵나라를 소멸한후 직접 진나라군을 영접하던 우공을 붙잡아 우나라를 멸망시켰다.

      어디에나 연결되어 있습니다.고인이 말한'고래 싸움에 새우등 터진다'와'순치의 나라 입술이 없으면 이가 시리다'는 것을 인정하지 않을 수 없다.우리는 우리와 연결되어 있는 사람과 일, 사물을 영원히 간과할 수 없다. 그들은 마치 우리의 실마리 위의 메뚜기와도 같다.복잡한 사회환경 속에서 자신의 안전과 생존을 도모하려면 우선 자신과 밀접한 세력을 찾아야 한다. 이들과 결합해 강한 자와 맞서야만 한다.





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